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Parking Analysis
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Parking is one of the major problems that is created by the increasing road traffic. It is an impact of transport development. The availability of less space in urban areas has increased the demand for parking space especially in areas like Central business district. This affects the mode choice also. This has a great economical impact.

Before taking any measures for the betterment of conditions, data regarding availability of parking space, extent of its usage and parking demand is essential. It is also required to estimate the parking fares also. Parking surveys are intended to provide all these information. Since the duration of parking varies with different vehicles, several statistics are used to access the parking need.

 

 Parking statistics

 

 Parking accumulation:  It is defined as the number of vehicles parked at a given instant of time. Normally this is expressed by accumulation curve. Accumulation curve is the graph obtained by plotting the number of bays occupied with respect to time.

 

Parking volume Parking volume is the total number of vehicles parked at a given duration of time. This does not account for repetition of vehicles. The actual volume of vehicles entered in the area is recorded.

 

Parking load : Parking load gives the area under the accumulation curve. It can also be obtained by simply multiplying the number of vehicles occupying the parking area at each time interval with the time interval. It is expressed as vehicle hours.

 

Average parking duration:  It is the ratio of total vehicle hours to the number of vehicles parked.

«math xmlns=¨http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML¨»«mi»p«/mi»«mi»a«/mi»«mi»r«/mi»«mi»k«/mi»«mi»i«/mi»«mi»n«/mi»«mi»g«/mi»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mi»d«/mi»«mi»u«/mi»«mi»r«/mi»«mi»a«/mi»«mi»t«/mi»«mi»i«/mi»«mi»o«/mi»«mi»n«/mi»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mo»=«/mo»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mfrac»«mrow»«mi»p«/mi»«mi»a«/mi»«mi»r«/mi»«mi»k«/mi»«mi»i«/mi»«mi»n«/mi»«mi»g«/mi»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mi»l«/mi»«mi»o«/mi»«mi»a«/mi»«mi»d«/mi»«/mrow»«mrow»«mi»p«/mi»«mi»a«/mi»«mi»r«/mi»«mi»k«/mi»«mi»i«/mi»«mi»n«/mi»«mi»g«/mi»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mi»v«/mi»«mi»o«/mi»«mi»l«/mi»«mi»u«/mi»«mi»m«/mi»«mi»e«/mi»«/mrow»«/mfrac»«/math»

 

Parking turnover: It is the ratio of number of vehicles parked in a duration to the number of parking bays available.

«math xmlns=¨http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML¨»«mi»p«/mi»«mi»a«/mi»«mi»r«/mi»«mi»k«/mi»«mi»i«/mi»«mi»n«/mi»«mi»g«/mi»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mi»t«/mi»«mi»u«/mi»«mi»r«/mi»«mi»n«/mi»«mi»o«/mi»«mi»v«/mi»«mi»e«/mi»«mi»r«/mi»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mo»=«/mo»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mfrac»«mrow»«mi»p«/mi»«mi»a«/mi»«mi»r«/mi»«mi»k«/mi»«mi»i«/mi»«mi»n«/mi»«mi»g«/mi»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mi»v«/mi»«mi»o«/mi»«mi»l«/mi»«mi»u«/mi»«mi»m«/mi»«mi»e«/mi»«/mrow»«mrow»«mi»N«/mi»«mi»o«/mi»«mo».«/mo»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mi»o«/mi»«mi»f«/mi»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mi»b«/mi»«mi»a«/mi»«mi»y«/mi»«mi»s«/mi»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mi»a«/mi»«mi»v«/mi»«mi»a«/mi»«mi»i«/mi»«mi»l«/mi»«mi»a«/mi»«mi»b«/mi»«mi»l«/mi»«mi»e«/mi»«/mrow»«/mfrac»«/math»

 This can be expressed as number of vehicles per bay per time duration.

Parking index: Parking index is also called occupancy or efficiency. It is defined as the ratio of number of bays occupied in a time duration to the total space available. It gives an aggregate measure of how effectively the parking space is utilized. Parking index can be found out as follows

«math xmlns=¨http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML¨»«mi»p«/mi»«mi»a«/mi»«mi»r«/mi»«mi»k«/mi»«mi»i«/mi»«mi»n«/mi»«mi»g«/mi»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mi»i«/mi»«mi»n«/mi»«mi»d«/mi»«mi»e«/mi»«mi»x«/mi»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mo»=«/mo»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mfrac»«mrow»«mi»p«/mi»«mi»a«/mi»«mi»r«/mi»«mi»k«/mi»«mi»i«/mi»«mi»n«/mi»«mi»g«/mi»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mi»l«/mi»«mi»o«/mi»«mi»a«/mi»«mi»d«/mi»«/mrow»«mrow»«mi»p«/mi»«mi»a«/mi»«mi»r«/mi»«mi»k«/mi»«mi»i«/mi»«mi»n«/mi»«mi»g«/mi»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mi»c«/mi»«mi»a«/mi»«mi»p«/mi»«mi»a«/mi»«mi»c«/mi»«mi»i«/mi»«mi»t«/mi»«mi»y«/mi»«/mrow»«/mfrac»«mo»§#215;«/mo»«mn»100«/mn»«/math» (1)

To illustrate the various measures, consider a small example in figure 1, which shows the duration for which each of the bays are occupied(shaded portion). Now the accumulation graph can be plotted by simply noting the number of bays occupied at time interval of 15, 30, 45 etc. minutes ias shown in the figure.

Figure 1: Parking bays and accumulation curve

begin{figure}centerline{epsfig{file=t85-parking-example.eps,width=8cm}}end{figure}

The various measures are calculated as shown below:

Parking volume= 5 vehicles.

Parking load = (1 + 2 + 1 + 0 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 1 )«math xmlns=¨http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML¨»«mfrac»«mn»15«/mn»«mn»60«/mn»«/mfrac»«/math» = «math xmlns=¨http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML¨»«mfrac»«mrow»«mn»11«/mn»«mo»§#215;«/mo»«mn»15«/mn»«/mrow»«mn»60«/mn»«/mfrac»«/math» = «math xmlns=¨http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML¨»«mn»2«/mn»«mo».«/mo»«mn»75«/mn»«/math» veh hour.

Average parking duration = «math xmlns=¨http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML¨»«mfrac»«mrow»«mn»2«/mn»«mo».«/mo»«mn»75«/mn»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mi»v«/mi»«mi»e«/mi»«mi»h«/mi»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mi»h«/mi»«mi»o«/mi»«mi»u«/mi»«mi»r«/mi»«mi»s«/mi»«/mrow»«mrow»«mn»5«/mn»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mi»v«/mi»«mi»e«/mi»«mi»h«/mi»«/mrow»«/mfrac»«/math» = «math xmlns=¨http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML¨»«mn»33«/mn»«/math» minutes.

Parking turnover = «math xmlns=¨http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML¨»«mfrac»«mrow»«mn»5«/mn»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mi»v«/mi»«mi»e«/mi»«mi»h«/mi»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mo»/«/mo»«mn»2«/mn»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mi»h«/mi»«mi»o«/mi»«mi»u«/mi»«mi»r«/mi»«mi»s«/mi»«/mrow»«mrow»«mn»3«/mn»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mi»b«/mi»«mi»a«/mi»«mi»y«/mi»«mi»s«/mi»«/mrow»«/mfrac»«/math» = «math xmlns=¨http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML¨»«mn»0«/mn»«mo».«/mo»«mn»83«/mn»«/math» veh/hr/bay.

Parking index = «math xmlns=¨http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML¨»«mfrac»«mrow»«mn»2«/mn»«mo».«/mo»«mn»75«/mn»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mi»v«/mi»«mi»e«/mi»«mi»h«/mi»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mi»h«/mi»«mi»o«/mi»«mi»u«/mi»«mi»r«/mi»«/mrow»«mrow»«mn»3«/mn»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mo»§#215;«/mo»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mn»2«/mn»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mi»v«/mi»«mi»e«/mi»«mi»h«/mi»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mi»h«/mi»«mi»o«/mi»«mi»u«/mi»«mi»r«/mi»«mi»s«/mi»«/mrow»«/mfrac»«mo»§#215;«/mo»«mn»100«/mn»«/math» = «math xmlns=¨http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML¨»«mn»45«/mn»«mo».«/mo»«mn»83«/mn»«mo»§nbsp;«/mo»«mo»%«/mo»«/math» 

 

License plate method of survey:

This results in the most accurate and realistic data. In this case of survey, every parking stall is monitored at a continuous interval of 15 minutes or so and the license plate number is noted down. This will give the data regarding the duration for which a particular vehicle was using the parking bay. This will help in calculating the fare because fare is estimated based on the duration for which the vehicle was parked. If the time interval is shorter, then there are less chances of missing short-term parkers. But this method is very labor intensive.

 

 

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